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Basic Principle of Electromechanical Energy Conversion

As all of you know that energy exists in many forms like chemical energy, potential energy, thermal energy, and many more. When we hear the word EMEC ( Electromechanical energy conversion) device, the first thing strike in our mind is that these are conversion device from electrical to mechanical.

So what’s exactly is an EMEC device

Electromechanical Energy Conversion Device

An electromechanical energy conversion device is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and mechanical energy into electrical energy.

The basic model of electromechanical energy conversion

Conversion of electromechanical energy takes place via two mediums. One is the magnetic field and another is the electrical fields. Most converters use the magnetic field as coupling medium electrical and mechanical systems. The large energy storing capacity of the magnetic field than the electrical fields is the reason to use the magnetic field as coupling medium b/w electrical and mechanical systems.

Electromechanical energy conversion is a reversible process. This means that the energy can be converted back and forth from electrical to mechanical form. But during this reversible process on every conversion, some energy is lost in the system

Electromechanical energy converters are either gross-motion devices such as electric motors and generators or incremental motion devices like microphones, loudspeakers, electromagnetic relays, etc.

Electromechanical energy conversion is used extensively in synchronous, induction, and DC machines. In these machines when conversion takes place from electrical form to mechanical form, then the device is called a motor. And when energy conversion takes place from mechanical to electrical form, then the device is called a generator. In these machines, the energy conversion results from the following electromagnetic phenomena:

  1. When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a mechanical force.
  2. When a conductor moves in a magnetic field, a voltage is induced in the conductor.

Conservation of energy

According to the principle of conservation of energy, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It may transfer from one form to another form.

Thus, with an electromechanical conversion device, the energy balance equation can be written as

[Electrical energy input] = [Energy to electrical losses]


[Energy to field storage in the electrical system]


[Mechanical energy output]

For generating action, the balance equation can be written as:

[Total mechanical energy input] = [Electrical energy output]


[Total energy stored]


[Total energy dissipated]

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